Die Geschichte von Sabile / the history of sabile

Sabile

Author: Olga Miheloviča (Riga, Latvia)

Sabile (Zabeln) is one of the most beautiful and oldest towns in Kurzeme. It is located in the Ancient valley of Abava between two hill ranges. The Abava valley is one of the most striking ancient valleys in Latvia. It is known for its famous cultural and historical monuments: a number of castle hills, historical centres of Kandava and Sabile and Pedvale estates, as well as natural monuments – caves „Mara’s chambers” (Māras kambari), waterfalls on Abava and Ivande rivers, Imula dolomite rocks and Cuzu (Čužu) sulphur water springs. The length of the Ancient valley is 30 km, the width – 0,5-2,5 km, but the depth up to 40 m. The most interesting and most beautiful part of the valley is between Kandava and Sabile, where the Abava valley and its coombs of tributary streams make the landscape. There are also many caves that were formed in the coombs of steep banks.

Until the 11th century towards the north from the Abava lived tribes of Baltic Finns – the ancestry of the Livonians. The odds are that the ancestry of Kurshi settled southwards from the Abava. Before incoming of Kurshi (up to 1000 years ago) in the neighbourhood of Sabile lived the Livonians. It is proved by the excavations that were made near the town in the Russian Cemetery of Sabile (Sabiles Krievu kapi). The archaeological excavations show that there was merchant and cultural contact between the Kurshi and the Livonians. Gradually the Livonians assimilated with the Kushi and adoped their material culture and language.

The hillforts remained from that period as historical witnesses. People from surrounding villages hide from the enemies behind the fortification of the hillfort, but the local ruler of the Kurshi lived in the castle (the castle was building of horizontal beams with towers). The hillfort of Sabile is one of the most remarkable hillforts along the coasts of river Abava, and it was located on the right bluff of the Abava valley. From the 11th to the 13th century, the hillfort of Sabile was the centre of district. The ancient town of hillfort was fortified by moats and palisades. The inhabitants of the ancient town were the Kurshi and the Livonians, who were assimilated with the Kushi. Largely they engaged in the craft.  

In the 13th century Kursa were conquered by the German crusaders. After German invasion, the castle of the Kurshi in Sabile was destroyed. In the historical sources, this castle is mentioned only one time – during the year of 1253. After the Fredecuronias division on the 4th of April 1253, conquered Kursa was dividend between the bishop of Kursa and the order of Livonia. In this document, Sabile was also mentioned. After the division, the order of Livonia obtained Sabile.

Organizing the network of castles for more comfortable administration of lands, the order built stone castles. During the end of the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century (probably – soon after the Battle of Durbe in 1260) the order of Livonia built stone castle with the chapel in Sabile. The castle of order in Sabile was not located on the hill (mostly castles of order were located on hills), but it was located in the valley on shore of river Abava. (The castle was located in the place where today is the bus station of Sabile, between the marketplace and the old elementary school). This castle of order was smaller fogtey (fogteja), and its fogt was direct subordinated to Komtur of Kuldiga. Johan, who was the fogt of Sabile’s castle, was mentioned in the chronicles in the year 1282, but another fogt was mentioned in the year 1301. In the 20’s of the 14th century, the castle of order was rebuilt. The castle was the quadrangular building with a large moat around it. First time as a fortification of the order, the stone castle of Sabile was mentioned only in the first quarter of the 15th century. The odds are that only at that time the formation of the castle was completely finished. A small village with a marketplace and workshops of artisans established near the order’s castle on a hill terraces in the 15th century. First time that village was mentioned in the chronicles in the year 1462. During the 15th century, German settlers were let in this place for assimilating local inhabitants. At the same time, German artisans and bargainers settled down in Sabile. The length of the town was already 2 km. 

Interesting that there is one document (that was wrote in 1422) where are mentioned both the castle of order, and ancient town of Kurshi. The odds are that the ancient town of the castle that belonged to Kurshi was inhabited during the 15th century, although the castle of order (that was located on the bank of river Abava) with its so-called „service area” had already became the centre of political and economic life. 

There is no reliable information about when the castle of order was built, but it is known that in 1563 it was destroyed so much that on the Vine hill of Sabile it was too dangerous to shot with the cannons. In 1794, there were only some ruins instead of the castle. (The unique picture of that year we can see in the collection of Johann Christoph Brotze.) Soon the ruins of the castle disappeared, because in the 18th century stones from the castle were built in the basics of the church, in walls of houses and in fences. In the pictures and documents of the 19th century, there is no information about the castle ruins of Sabile.

Already during the time of order, there was large plantation of grapes on the hill of the right bank of river Abava. The vine from Sabile was very popular in the all castles of order, and it was exported to the foreign countries. The vine growing in the territory of Latvia already existed in the 14th century, when after wars began the peaceful period and the economic life flourished. Initially, the vine growing was cultivated in Ventspils, but later along the riverside of Venta the vine growing spread up to Abava and further along the riverside of Abava it spread up to Sabile.

Significantly, that already in the olden times Sabile was located near the important overland road from the lower reaches of river Daugava, along Tukums, Kuldiga to Kandava and then to the lands of ancient Prussians. This road maintained its importance also in the Middle Ages (the road from Livonia to Prussia: Riga – Tukums – Kandava – Sabile – Kuldiga – Liepaja). Along this road were imported raw materials (amber, gray slate, flint, non-ferrous metal) and products (glass beads, fittings, various weapons). These things were found also in the archaeological sites of Sabile.

The order of Livonia fall apart in 1560. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was formed, and the region of Sabile became part of it. In the time of the Courland duchy Sabile administratively was subordinated to Kandava and lord of the manor of Kandava administrated it.

Even before the Reformation, there was small wooden chapel next to the castle of order in Sabile. On the 28th of February 1567 duke Gotthard Kettler ordered to build a new church instead of this wooden chapel, although in 1627 priest Helmsing complained that the church still is not finished. The church books give quite an interesting view. For example, the inventory book of the year 1642 shows that the church was quite ruined, and that the church inventory was very scanty. Also in the protocol of the year 1665 was remarked a complaint that the roof of the church is in ruins. The duke told to fix it, but it was not done. The tower of the church was built only in 1682. Later for reconstruction of the Lutheran church in Sabile were used materials from the ruines of the order’s castle. In 1876, the church was completely reconstructed, but the old tower and its much older bell (made in 1450) were kept. The biggest treasures of the interior in the church are the mannerism pulpit (the beginning of the 17th century), the ceiling lamp (1680) and the candlesticks (1692). In 1859 the church obtained the organ, but in 1861 the altarpiece from Dresden (author – German painter Wolf, 1860). There was also an organist, who worked in the church. He had to sing in Latvian and German, as well as to teach the German children. Latvian sacristan taught Latvian children. In the churche worked also a bell-ringer. Since the beginning of the 16th century in Sabile worked the church school (this school worked with interruptions).

The Duchy of Courland economically flourished during the time of Duke Jacob Kettler (1642-1682). During his reign, the shipbuilding was developed and manufactories were arranged. There was a flax weaving-mill, mills, lime and tar kilns in Sabile. There were also the furnaces for metal and the enterprises of mechanical industry. The small village of Sabile developed to the centre of craft and trade. In the 17th century vine of Sabile was supplemented with some new varieties.

During endless the Swedish-Polish wars, when troops from both countries raided Courland, Sabile was heavily destroyed. In 1703, Swedes under the guidance of Charles XII of Sweden heavily destroyed the town of Sabile. In 1710, when the plague raged in Courland, all inhabitants of Sabile left their houses and went to the forest. During the Great Northern War Sabile economically declined. In 1727, Maurice de Saxe and his troops went to Usma through Sabile, but troops of Russians followed them. After many diseases and wars Sabile was badly declined, but in the 18th century here still lived nine Latvian families, that were independent of the serf-owner.

This entire time river Abava took a considerable place in the town development. Although the Abava is not very deep river (it is not suitable for navigation), but it is quite wide river, so (especially during the periods of spring) the Abava is suitable for the tree rafting. The drawing of the year 1797 (painter – A. von Albedil) shows that for crossing river Abava was used a raft. It should be noted that the Abava generally is not very large river, so fishing do not take remarkable importance.

 

The history of Jews community in Sabile

The district of Sabile once more began to flourish only in 1795, when the Duchy of Courland was annexed by the Russian Empire. At that time Catherine II the Empress of Russia passed a law about the new administrative division of Courland. The Governorate of Courland was created and Sabile administratively was added to the district of Talsi. There were 17 houses and 5 taverns in Sabile in 1805. In 1808, Sabile was almost burned down because of the conflagration.

The resolve that Jews cannot arrive in Courland was repealed in 1799. During the reign of the Russian Empire (until beginning of World War I), the number of Jews in Courland increased 6 times. During this time among Jews of Courland emerged a trend to settle in urban areas. The number of population in towns increased from 20% (in 1797) to 67% (in 1897). This important process during 100-120 years was provided by economic growth of the region. This phenomenon had very positive impact on Jews’ life – increased their influence in the wholesale, in the oversea trade (mainly Jews engaged in export), in the industry, in the investment of properties and businesses and in the liberal professions. Wherewith the Jewish population became independent and their standard of living, as well as their civic and political activity increased.

The first information about Jews settlers in Sabile is from the beginning of the 19th century. In 1801, there were no Jews. The first Jews appeared in Sabile in 1803. They were bucher Abram and gravedigger Moses. The restrictions on Jews had small effect in the the Governorate of Courland, so many Jews from Lithuania and Poland moved to live there. Therefore, the proportion of Jews began to grow also in Sabile. In 1809, there were about 200 Jews in Sabile. In the same year the Jewish cemetery was set up, it existed untill World War II. In the course of time, the number of buildings in Sabile increased. In 1819, there were 25 dwelling houses.

The community of Jews, mostly mitnaggedim, was established around 1840. A feature of this local Jewish community was that from 1840 to 1864, it served as a training ground for rabbis, who began their service in Sabile and within several years moved to larger cities. So the first rabbi of the town, Menachem Izraelson, moved to Kudiga, and rabbis Mordechay Samunov and Duber Wolf Lipshitz moved to Ventspils.

In the middle of the 19th century, Sabile became the centre of trade and craft, known for its skilful tanners. Only Tukums and Jelgava outworked Sabile in the leather industry. In 1861 there were 506 houses (488 of them were leased, 18 of them were converted to the living houses for workers) in Sabile.

In 1863, Sabile became typical Jewish town (73% of population were Jews). Mostly Jews lived in the centre of the town. They engaged in the trade, rented houses and kept guesthouses.

It should be noted that the topography always influenced the facilities of urban building in Sabile. It was possible to build houses and to make gardens only in narrow zone between the river and the declivity of bank. The historical building of the town is the town planning monument of the 15th – 19th centuries. The centre of the old town is located opposite to the bridge over river Abava. There are old-time houses in the narrow and tortuous streets. Mainly these houses are one-storey wooden or stone wall buildings. More architecturaly valuable buildings of the 19th century are located in Streets Talsu, Ventspils, Rigas and Kuldigas.  There are many sources in urban teritory of the town, and this feature is also seen in the center of Sabile, where one watersource flow along Ventspils Street to the Abava.

In the second half of the 19th century there were various private schools (for example  – K. Shmits’ (Šmita), F. Biskevics’ (Biškevica) and F. Circelis’ (Cirķeļa), A. Rozenfelde’s, P. Perlaua’s, as well as Glazere’s (Glēzeres) school). In that time there was established the first national elementary school. Within the russification process, studies were in Russian (except the studies of faith and Latvian language). There were also two schools for girls (Neifelde’s school and Senberga’s (Šēnberga) school) and the secondary school of E. Jegers.

In Courland, even low-income families of Jews tried to provide for their children a good education in the 50ties and 60ties of the 19th century. Many of Jews adults knew German in conversational level. Yiddish was used as everyday speech in many families of Jews. From the middle of the 19th century (until World War I) Jewish children attended the general school. The boys studied Jewish subjects at the Heder (there were 3 Heders in Sabile – Z. L. Meijerovics’, M. Z. Blumenau’s and S. B. Veinbergs’), but the girls attended private classes. A Yeshiva, which was opened in 1897, was closed shortly thereafter because of financial difficulties.

In the second half of the 19th century, Rabbi Tsvi Rolbe worked in Sabile (from 1864 until 1900). At that time the building of synagogue was started. The synagogue is a stone building and its foundation was built in 1875. The synagogue of Sabile was finished in 1890. It was built in typical orthodox and ascetic style. There are two segregated entrances for men and women, the balcony and other attributes of Jewish faith. There was the House of Prayer Beit HaMidrash near the synagogue. (Both of these buildings – the synagogue and the House of Prayer – were used until World War II.) Interesting that the synagogue of Sabile is similar to another synagogue, which was built in Livorn town (Italy) in 1603 and which was as prototype for many synagogues throughout Europe.

The number of inhabitants in Sabile sharply increased during the 19th century, but later (in the 20th century) the number of inhabitants in Sabile fluctuated:

 

Year Population of the town Number of Jews
1863 947 About 690 (73%)
1881 1404 / 1442 936 (65%) / 873 (62,2%)
1897 1608 . . .
1910 About 2000 960 (48%)
1920 930 224 (24,1%)
1925 1350 325 (24,1%)
1930 1914 306 (16%)
1935 1817 281 (15,5%)

 

Rabbi Meir worked in Sabile from 1901 until 1915.

Many of city dwellers from Sabile were participated in the rebellions of 1905. There were wide range of demonstrations. In December of 1905, a group of warriors from Kuldiga attacked the post office in Sabile and disarmed the police force. A train with soldiers was sent to Sabile for repression of the rebellion. But this train had to return to Tukums, because fighters from Stende withdrew some sections of rails. On the 28th of December two squadrons of raiders with cannons arrived in Sabile as the punitive expedition. Later in the place named „Stuņķu priedes” the punitive expedition shot two revolutionists – Volfs and Kerns.

Luckily, Sabile did not suffer in World War I, although there was decline of urban development. During the war, many of inhabitants from Sabile went into exile. Nevertheless, later after the expulsion by tsarist authorities of 1915, not all Jews returned to Sabile. World War I brought great changes to school life also, because many teachers were mobilized or went into exile. When German troops entered Kurzeme, here worked only 12 German schools (before that the total number of schools in Kurzeme were 400).

The city status was granted to Sabile on the 15th April 1917. The previously used name of the town („Zabeln”) was changed to the official name of the city („Sabile”). The emblem of the city remind of Sabile’s old past. There is a bunch of grapes in natural colour on golden area in the emblem of Sabile. In the 1918 there was established an elementary school with 6 classes (it was located in No. 21, Riga Street, but headmaster was F. Revalds).

Although Latvia was founded in 1918, there was the Soviet power in Sabile from January to March of 1919. The Soviet power made a number of adjustments. During the Latvian War of Independence Sabile was freed from the rule of Bolsheviks (March 13, 1919). Later (March 14, 1919) units of German Landeswehr occupied Sabile. After that (October 30, 1919) Bermont’s troops invaded in the city. In fightings against Bermont’s troop’s commandant of Sabile first lieutenant Burbe and 3 soldiers died in the streets of Sabile. Later attacks of Latvian army successfully progressed in the southern front, and on the 24th of November Sabile was liberated from Bermont’s troops.

In the 20’s of the 20th century trade and industry began gradually flourish. A dairy, wool spinning-mill, dye-works, sawmill and brewery worked in Sabile.

The community council, which was elected in 1920 with the help of the „Joint” (the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, a Jewish relief organization), began to organize life of Jewish community. A loan fund was established and people who had suffered injuries were given free medical care and medication. There was also doctor Davidovich, who was a Jew.

After World War I Rabbi Sholom Tsvi Tobias worked in Sabile until his death in 1924. Later Rabbi Elhonon Hakoen Kan became the Rabbi of Sabile.

Teacher E. Peigman opened the Jewish school with three classes in Sabile in November 1919. The language of studies was Russian. The local municipality allowed to use the premises of the Latvian school. At that time, there were 60 Jewish children, who needed the school education. Only 22 of them signed for studies, because not all parents were able to pay the school money every month. At least 30 pupils of minority were necessary for opening the individual Jewish school. On the 23rd of March 1920 teacher E. Peigman petitioned to the Department of Jewish education for opening free school for Jews in Sabile. The list of pupils of Jewish school in Sabile was approved on the 20th of January 1922. The Jewish elementary school in Sabile was established in 1922. This Jewish school in Sabile, teaching in Yiddish and Hebrew, supported by the municipality, functioned in the separate building. The school was located in No. 1, Kuldigas Street.

There were four classes (the preparatory class, the second, the thirt and the forth class) in the school. That school was working from 2 p.m. to 7.30 p.m. Primarily there were only 3 teachers (Leon Tavjev, who was also the administrator of the school; M. Veicman and E. Peigman). Later (from 1923) the administrator of the school was Bekl, but teachers were – Salmanovich, W. Weisman, Berel, R. Weisman and Juris Silins (Siliņš), who gave lessons of Latvian language and worked in the Jewish elementary school of Sabile 3 years. There were 51 pupils in the school in 1923. Two of them were Russians by nationality. From 1924 and in some after years the administrator of the school was Nison Tobiass. Teachers in 1924 were – Vofai Sona (Soņa) and Zonenstale (Zonenštāle) Cila (she worked in the Jewish elementary school of Sabile 2 years). Slonimski David worked as teacher in the Jewish elementary school of Sabile from 1925, but teacher R. Glazere joined the team of teachers in 1927. In 1928, there were 4 teachers, but number of pupils were 40. Gradually the Jewish elementary school of Sabile became the school with 6 classes. In 1929, there were already 6 classes. Teacher F. Revalds (he gave lessons of the Latvian language and history of Latvia) replaced previous teacher J. Silins. In 1931 there worked also teacher Boner.

In 1925, there were 75 houses in Sabile (70 of them were stone buildings). Most of buildings were built after World War I. The feature of topography defined that the city building was not made following strict plan, but houses were built quite spontaneously. That is why the city were extended along river Abava. Streets, that are located parallel to the river, are straight and flat, but streets, that are located northerly, have huge rise (houses of these streets were built as follows – there was basement downwards, that adapted hillside). Most of houses in the oldest part of the city had red tile roofs. The streets in the centre of Sabile were covered with a boulder pavement, but the streets of suburb were without cover. The total town area of Sabile were 5,5 square kilometres in 1926. Later (in 1927) boundaries of Sabile were expanded by estate lands of Pastende, Rinkule, Brinku (Briņķu) and Sabile. After that the city was greatly expanded.

The main occupation of inhabitants in Sabile were trade and agriculture. In the 20s of the 20th century in Sabile worked only some small industrial enterprises. Well-known was only the factory „Stars” that produced safety matches. This factory was located in No. 20, Riga Street, but the total number of workers were up to 100. Later there was founded the match syndicate, and in 1934 the factory „Stars” in Sabile was joined to other match factory in Kuldiga.

In the end of the 20’s of the 20th century, the young generation of Jews began to leave Sabile. Jewish youth went to the larger cities.

After the 15th of May 1934, huge changes set in the menage of Sabile, because the municipality of the city began to work in the new staff. This municipality of the city began systematically to administer all previous obligations and to organize the city economy. According to the plan of development of the city there was planned to build a baths and slaughterhouse.

From 1934, the Jewish elementary school in Sabile was added to the Latvian elementary school with 6 classes. This Jewish school functioned in the afternoons in the premises of the Latvian school. In 1934 teacher of this school was also N. Etingen.

There were no organized Zionist activities, except for the revisionist „Betar” youth movement, which had a branch in the city.

In 1935, there were 235 dwelling houses in Sabile (158 from them were stone buildings, 61 – wooden buildings, but 16 were mixed; 212 from all houses were one-storey buildings, 20 – two-storey buildings, but 3 houses were three-storey buildings). The number of flats that year were 771 (286 from all flats had an electric lighting, but 13 flats had a water pipe). There was no district heating.

There were several public, economic and cultural organizations in Sabile: the department of “Guards Organization”, the Society of voluntary firemen, the Credit-savings society of Sabile, the Credit-savings society of Matkule and the Latvian society. The post and telegraph office was located in No. 16, Talsu Street.

In 1935, there was a public library in Sabile, which was located in No. 6, Krisjana Barona Street. In Sabile also functioned a private library, which belonged to N. Tobiass (he was the administrator of the Jewish school in Sabile). His library was located in No. 14, Ventspils Street. It was opened once a week. There was no reading-room in the library. The books (the total number of books were 210, all these books were in foreign language, 208 of all these books were fiction, but 2 books were scientific) were lent out for free. The total number of readers were 12.

In the 30’s there were several vulnerary institutions in Sabile: the 13th rest home of sickness insurance institution of Riga for employees of the city, that was located in No. 43, Rigas Street (owner – O. Donkers); so-called the New chemist’s in No. 7, Ventspils Street (owner – K. Veide, administrator – M. Pusbarnieks). There were several doctors in Sabile: Jekabs Biezais, Etti Brin (she worked in No. 10, Talsu Street) and Mowscha Davidowitsch (he worked in No. 3, Talsu Street). There were also three dentists in Sabile (Ella Ulpe, Leonids Zalmanovics and Ella Brivmane).

Many summer residents, who spent in Sabile their summer vacations, were fond of local rural mood. Once there were on vacation such famed men as K. Ulmanis, J. Balodis and J. Jaunsudrabins (Jaunsudrabiņš). In general, about 300 summer residents spent their summer vacations in Sabile, and the number of vacationists increased every year. Sabile was commendatory place for lungers (Sabile is located about 80 m above sea level, there is dry air and gushing mountain streams in neighbourhood, there is no morass). On the bank of river Abava, near Jaunsabile is located one of the most favourite places of summer residents – „The seaside of Sabile”, but down the Abava there is about 2 m high many-stage waterfall – „Abavas rumba”. The „Egypt of Sabile” is one of the pleasantest places, which is suitable for bigger holidaymaker groups. The „Egypt of Sabile” is the riverside of the Abava, where once river had overflowed and left a layer of fertile mud as do the Nile in Egypt. The Vine hill of Sabile is another the most notable place in Sabile. It is 33,5 m high hill. In the surroundings of the city, there are many deep glens, wide pinewood and many small rivers, which are teeming with trouts. From Sabile it is quite easy to get to beautiful millponds of Stende, Usmas Lake and many lakes of Renda, which are teeming with fish. It is also quite easy to get to some tributary streams of river Abava, which are full of crawfish.

In the 30’s there were several guest-houses in Sabile (the rest-house in No. 4, Talsu Street, that belonged to K. Ievkalns, the boarding-house „Switzerland of Kurzeme” („Kurzemes Šveice”) in No. 50, Ventspils Street, that belonged to J. Rudzitis and the boarding-house in No. 2, Valdemara Street, that belonged to S. Valdenstein). There was also the lodging for tourists in No. 7, Valdemara Street (in Jaunsabile).

In the 30’s the main industrial enterprises in Sabile were – the enterprise of wood industry, that belonged to Valdmanis and Dambergs, the steam dye-house and wooldressing factory, that belonged to M. Berzins (Bērziņš) and the motorizing wood industry, that belonged to K. Dukats. In 1937 the construction of the open-air vineyard in Sabile was started. The Ministry of Agriculture decided to make this vineyard near the hillfort of Sabile. (It is quite interesting, that the Vine hill of Sabile, which nowadays is about 1,5 hectare large plantation of vine, is mentioned in The Guinness Book of World Records as northernmost an open-air vineyard in the world. Every year in the last weeks of July city dwellers and guests celebrate the Vine feast in honour of the Vine hill of Sabile.)

The religious life of the city was organized by several congregations of faiths (the Lutheran Church – it was located in No. 46, Ventspils Street, clergyman – Karlis Zarins (Zariņš); the congregation of baptists – they got together in No. 3, Ventspils Street; the Jewish community – they got together in No. 4, Strautu Street, rabbi Benjamin Kagan). Rabbi Benjamin Kagan worked in Sabile from 1931, but Rabbi Itzhok Segal worked in Sabile from the 24th of March 1940 (he was also the last Rabbi of Sabile). The Rabbi of the community conducted Talmud classes for adults twice weekly and on Shabbath he taught Torah.

The majority of the members of the community were storekeepers in the grocery and cloth trades, or merchants dealing in lumber and cattle. Others made a living as tradesmen: tailors, shoemakers and tinsmiths. Town rented a slaughterhouse from the Jewish community.

In general, there were slightly more than 70 shops and business enterprises in Sabile in the 30’s. There were: 2 first class inns, 2 food shops, 3 book and stationery stores, 17 grocery stores, 1 colonial shop, 1 fish shop, 1 dairy products store, 6 bakeries (including a couple of pastry shops), 7 butcheries, 2 shops of wine and vodka, 1 bicycle shop, 1 gasoline and oil shop, 1 clock shop, 3 ironmongers’ shops, 1 herbal shop, 3 manufactures (and / or fashion) shops, 4 ready-made clothes stores (it was possible to buy hats in one of these shops), 1 children’s clothing shop, 1 shoe shop, 2 chandlery shops, 4 hairdressings, 1 cinema, 1 fur shop, 2 dishes shops, 2 coffin shops, 1 laundry and shoe shop. The half of these shops and business enterprises belonged to Jews:

  • The shoe shop (No. 6, Kuldigas Street, proprietor – Elia Heimann);
  • The gasoline and oil shop – joint-stock company „Apekol” (No. 3, Rigas Street, proprietor – Benze Kabiller);
  • The ironmongers’ shop (No. 1/3, Talsu Street, proprietor – Samuel Hosiasohn);
  • The food shop (No. 6, Talsu Street, proprietress – Rive Kimmel);
  • The butcher’s shop (No. 2, Pilskalna Street, proprietor – Gutel Weitzmann);
  • The butcher’s shop (No. 2, Pilskalna Street, proprietor – Motel Weitzmann);
  • The butcher’s shop (No. 2, Pilskalna Street, proprietor – Ruven Weitzmann);
  • The butcher’s shop (No. 7, Rigas Street, proprietor – Israel Wulfahrt);
  • The butcher’s shop (No. 5, Ventspils Street, proprietor – Abram Margolin);
  • The ready-made clothes and hats store (No. 12, Rigas Street, proprietor – Sloma Moschkowitsch);
  • The ready-made clothes and fashion store (No. 10, Rigas Street, proprietress – Hanna Grinblatt);
  • The ready-made clothes store (No. 9, Rigas Street, proprietress – Rochel Schneider);
  • The ready-made clothes store (No. 5, Ventspils Street, proprietor – Haim Berger);
  • The colonial shop (No. 8, Rigas Street, proprietor – Gutman Feitelberg);
  • The manufactures shop (No. 8, Rigas Street, proprietor – Wulf Blumenau);
  • The manufactures and fashion shop (No. 5, Rigas Street, proprietress – Rochel Kabiller);
  • The manufactures and fashion shop (No. 4, Rigas Street, proprietor – David Hoffmann);
  • The grocery store (No. 2, Kuldigas Street, proprietor – Abe Behr Feldhuhn);
  • The grocery store (No. 5, Ventspils Street, proprietor – Leiba Gangin);
  • The grocery store (No. 3, Kuldigas Street, proprietor – Samuel Glaser);
  • The grocery store (No. 1, Rigas Street, proprietress – Mere Perlmann);
  • The grocery store (No. 10, Rigas Street, proprietor – Schaja Kabiller);
  • The grocery store (No. 3, Rigas Street, proprietor – Benze Kabiller);
  • The grocery store (No. 3, Rigas Street, proprietor – Jankel Kabiller);
  • The grocery store (No. 9, Rigas Street, proprietor – Gutel Weitzmann);
  • The grocery store (No. 1, Ventspils Street, proprietress – Gite Mendelsohn);
  • The grocery store (No. 2, Ventspils Street, proprietor – Aron Perlmann);
  • The clock shop (No. 8, Rigas Street, proprietor – Schleime Schneider);
  • The chandlery shops (No. 8, Rigas Street, proprietor – Boruch Schindelmann);
  • The dishes shop (No. 8/10, Kuldigas Street, proprietor – Folja Slotnikov);
  • The dishes shop (No. 10, Rigas Street, proprietor – Aron Thalberg);
  • The fur shop (No. 1, Kuldigas Street, proprietress – Gite Blumenau).

 

In addition there were 2 sausage workshops, 1 enterprise of mineral water, 2 mechanical workshops, 1 dye house and wool-processing factory, 2 joinery companies and 1 electricity authority (No. 6, Krisjana Barona Street, it belonged to the city administration of Sabile). The range of consumer services in the city was quite wide. There worked the baths, the photographer’s, the sewing and shoe repairing workshops and various other service points.

Jews in their shops mostly were sellers; they sold all goods by themselves. All goods, that inhabitabts of Sabile needed, were given on the debt also. In the city also worked two Jewish traders, who took to farmers different goods (for example – the barels of herrings) by a horse cart. There was only one Jewish family, which farmed and cultivated land in Sabile.  

Interesting, that Latvian children sometimes, in everyday contacts with the Jewish children, remade and simplified their names. For example – there was one Jewish girl, whose name was Zelcke, but children called her Zenta. In general, all inhabitabts of Sabile lived quite friendly. Although the festivities were not celebrated together, however city dwellers watched with a great interest how Jews on Jāņi Day took and lighted pitch barels. After that Jews put these barels on the water of river Abava. City dwellers knew that Jews had so-called „Feast of Booths” (Sukkot). Interesting seemed also the Jewish weddings, that took place in the synagogue. Overall, the time from 1920 until 1940 was the best years of long Jewish life in Latvia – so-called the „gold years”.

In 1940 there was set up a Soviet government in Latvia. Many modifications were made in the education, culture and health issues. This period (so-called – „The Dangerous Year”) for many Jews of Latvia were frightful. In July of 1940 began the destruction of cultural system of Latvian Jewish communities. Many Jewish schools and organizations of Zionists were closed. Also the Jewish elementary school in Sabile was abolished.

In Sabile was opened the elementary school with 7 classes (head master – Pauls Lidums). Thus in the Latvian elementary school (originally there were only 6 classes) was opened the 7th class. In 1940/1941 school year, there were 59 pupils – 8 of them were Jews (3 girls and 5 boys). One of these Jewish pupils was son of Hirschsohn. Hirschsohn was a shopkeeper (he had the shop in No. 8, Kuldigas Street, where in the courtyard of the house horses were sold). Schindelmann’s son and daughter also attended the 7th class of the new elementary school. Schindelmann had the tinsmith’s shop in No. 8, Rigas Street. Son of Moschkowitsch and daughter of Wulfahrt also were pupils of this class.

Many Jews left Sabile, when in the summer of 1940 many of private enterprises were expropriated. Jewish public life in the city gradually declined. However, the worst time started in the June of 1941, after the outbreak of the war between Germany and the USSR. Many city dwellers of Sabile joined the Red army (17 fighters were killed in action against German invaders). Besides, in the spring of 1941 a number of rich Jews were banished to Siberia.

 

Jews of Sabile during World War II

Holocaust

On the 22nd of June 1941 Nazi Germany attacked the USSR. Latvia was fully occupied in the beginning of July. Began the most dreadful tragedy in history of Latvian Jews – their destruction.

After the outbreak of the war between Germany and the USSR (June 22, 1941), a small number of Jews managed to escape from Sabile. Part of these Jews escaped from Sabile with Latvians, who were evacuated as the medical staff of the local hospital. The number of Jews, who escaped from Sabile in such way, was about 15-20 (mainly young men).

When on the 2nd of July in 1941 the first units of German troops entered Sabile, the authority institutions of Soviet occupation had already left Sabile (on the 27th of June). The synagogue turned into a public bath, while the Torah was burned.

From the 1st August 1941 all Jews in Latvia were ordered to wear the stars of 6 beams. Also all Jews of Sabile had to sew yellow stars on their clothes.

According to memories of older generation of citizens, temporarily Jews of Sabile were sent to work. The members of older generation of Sabile remembered the strange view – a row of people with yellow stars on the backs goes from Sabile to Kandava. Adults were saying: “Poor Jews are rushing to work in Tojati.”

The terror against Jews were expanded throughout Latvia, but the program of total destruction was first implemented in the provinces. On the 4th of August 1941 all Jewish families of Sabile were captured (240 persons along with children) and imprisoned in a house near river Abava (maybe it was the house in No. 8/10, Kuldigas Street or the synagogue of the city), where they were temporarily kept.

On the 5th of August, in the morning Jews were drove by cars to a place near Svente. Behind them drove persons with shovels. One Jew (according to memories of the older generation of citizens) tried to run away. That Jew was mentally ill and local residents of Sabile called him Snike. His attempt to flee failed, and he was gun down. All Jews of Sabile were drove by cars to a place, where two holes were dug up in the forest near the roadside (not far from that place, where river Karonu (Kāroņu) flows into river Abava). On the 6th of August in 1941 Jews of Sabile were shot. The last rabbi of Jewish community in Sabile – Rabbi Itzhok Segal – also perished in the Holocaust.

During less than a half of year were killed about 60 000 or 64% of 94 000 Jews in Latvia (data of 1935 census). However, if express these data by information of 1941, then from 66 000 Jews, who were captured in Latvia, in December of 1941 about 91% of them were killed. The exact number of Jews, who were killed in Latvia, is unknown, but it does not mean that Germans in 1941 did not maintain records. There was carried out Jews registration in all Jewish communities of Latvia before they were killed.

There are mentioned different numbers of Jews, who were killed in Sabile. Although the caption on the memorial stone informs about 240 victims, there are sources and literature, where is mentioned other data. For example – there are information about 340 victims, about 270 victims or about 250 Jews. Significantly, that in 1945 by one version there were found 770 corpses in the mass grave in Sabile, but by another version – there were found 372 corpses.

The number of Sabile’s Jews or Jews, who were connected with this city, temporarily is 299. Any credible information or facts about these persons were aggregated in three tables by thematic principles – „Jews, who were killed in Sabile in 1941” (table 1), „Jews, who during the war were in Sabile, but there is no information about their fate in 1941-1945” (table 2) and „The others Jews of Sabile or Jews who were connected with Sabile” (table 3).

In the table 1, that is given below, was aggregated information about Jews from Sabile, in whose personal cards in columns „Fate in 1941-1945”, „Place of death” and „Date of death” were written – killed in Sabile in 1941.

The names of persons are given according to German spelling. The format of birth and death dates is – year, day, and month. Many of places of birth are given according to the historical names of the places (for example: Ventspils – Windau, Kuldiga – Goldingen, Valgale – Walgahlen, Liepaja – Libau, Sabile – Zabeln etc.). The sign „?” means that the fact is possible („?” is equal to „maybe”). The information in the column „Remark” gives wider view about Jews of Sabile, members of their families (it is possible to see relatives), family status, occupation etc.

 

Table 1

Jews, who were killed in Sabile in 1941 

  Family name (maiden name), given name, gender [F-female, M-male] Date of birth (year, day, month), place of birth  Remark (members of the family, family status; occupation, comments)
1.       BERGER Abram [М] 1931 20 03

Riga

Father – Haim, mother – Bertha
2.       BERGER Bertha [F] 1894 22 12

Zabeln

Spouse – Haim; Lithuanian citizen
3.       BERGER Haim [М] 1899 15 12

Lithuania

Spouse – Bertha; shopkeeper, Lithuanian citizen
4.       BLUMBERG Haja [F] 1911 18 02

Zabeln

Unmarried; worker
5.       BLUMENAU (GOLDBERG) Basse [F] 1892 12 12

Zabeln

Spouse – Schaja; householder
6.       BLUMENAU (GOLDBERG) Gite [F] 1874 10 04

Zabeln

Widow
7.       BLUMENAU Abram [М] 1868 24 06

Talsen

Unmarried
8.       BLUMENAU Abram [М] 1905 04 12

Zabeln

Mother – Gite, unmarried; trader
9.       BLUMENAU Hanna [F] 1893 20 04

Zabeln

Divorced
10.   BLUMENAU Lea [F] 1869 12 10

Zabeln

Unmarried
11.   BLUMENAU Mowscha [М] 1922 10 11

Sabile

Father – Schaja, mother – Basse, unmarried
12.   BLUMENAU Necha [F] 1872 28 09 Usma, Windau district Spouse – Wulf
13.   BLUMENAU Roche [F] 1927 07 10

Sabile

Father – Schaja, mother – Basse
14.   BLUMENAU Schaja [М] 1891 03 12

Zabeln

Spouse – Basse; trader
15.   BLUMENAU Sisel [М] 1924 07 10

Sabile

Father – Schaja, mother – Basse
16.   BLUMENAU Wulf [М] 1877 22 05 Zabeln Married; trader
17.   BLUMENTHAL (FELDMANN) Hanna [F] 1877 25 12

Goldingen

Spouse – Nochum
18.   BLUMENTHAL Nochum [М] 1882 14 08

Tuckum

Spouse – Hanna
19.   BLUMENTHAL Sora [F] 1919 24 07

Russia

Father – Nochum, mother – Hanna, unmarried
20.   DAVIDOWITSCH Moritz Mowscha [М] 1871 04 09

Zabeln

Spouse – Amalia, widower; doctor
21.   FEITELBERG (HOSIASOHN) Schore Haje [F] 1905 26 12

Zabeln

Father – Markus, mother – Riva, spouse – Gutman Leiser
22.   FEITELBERG (KAPLAN) Sara [F] 1888

Zabeln

Spouse – Hirsch Abram
23.   FEITELBERG Gutman Leiser [М] 1897 03 10

Piltene

Spouse – Schore Haje; shopkeeper
24.   FEITELBERG Hirsch Abram [М] 1875 10 02

Zabeln

Spouse – Sara; coachman
25.   FEITELBERG Jache Rive [F] 1923 13 12

Sabile

Father – Hirsch Abram, mother – Sara
26.   FEITELBERG Jankel [М] 1927 24 08

Sabile

Father – Hirsch Abram, mother – Sara
27.   FEITELBERG Roche [F] 1930 10 03

Sabile

Father – Gutman Leiser, mother – Schore Haje
28.   FEITELBERG Rosiel [М] 1934 08 11

Sabile

Father – Gutman Leiser, mother – Schore Haje
29.   FEITELBERG Schmuel / Samuel [М] 1920 26 01

Melitopol

Father – Hirsch Abram, mother – Sara, unmarried
30.   FELDHUHN (KAHN) Riva [F] 1871 23 10

Zabeln

Spouse – Abe Behr
31.   FELDHUHN Abe Behr [М] 1876 17 03

Friedrichstadt

Married; shopkeeper
32.   FELDHUHN Libe [F] 1873

Windau

Married
33.   FELDMANN (FRIEDMANN) Taube [F] 1894 22 07

Kandau

Spouse – Salaman
34.   FELDMANN (LEWY) Libe Rasche [F] 1899 07 02

Talsen

Spouse – Leibe; housewife
35.   FELDMANN Feiga [F] 1929 26 05

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
36.   FELDMANN Froim Schneier [М] 1940 02 05

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
37.   FELDMANN Hone [М] 1928 26 02

Sabile

Father – Salaman
38.   FELDMANN Itzig [М] 1931 18 10

Sabile

Father – Salaman
39.   FELDMANN Lea [F] 1934 08 10

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
40.   FELDMANN Leibe [М] 1902 10 04

Zabeln

Spouse – Libe Rasche; cabman
41.   FELDMANN Leiser Itze [М] 1926 02 06

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
42.   FELDMANN Meite [F] 1930 28 10

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
43.   FELDMANN Mowsche [М] 1890 10 11

Skede, Goldingen district

Widower
44.   FELDMANN Pere Beile [F] 1938 19 09

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
45.   FELDMANN Phillip [М] 1932 19 02

Sabile

Father – Salaman
46.   FELDMANN Riva Hassa [F] 1923 22 02

Kandava

Father – Salaman, mother – Taube, unmarried
47.   FELDMANN Rive [F] 1932 13 03

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
48.   FELDMANN Rive [F] 1933 16 08

Sabile

Father – Mowsche
49.   FELDMANN Salaman [М] 1886 30 11

Zabeln

Spouse – Taube; shoemaker
50.   FELDMANN Scheine Dweire [F] 1926 04 04

Sabile

Father – Salaman, mother – Taube
51.   FELDMANN Schore Selde [F] 1937 06 01

Sabile

Father – Leibe, mother – Libe Rasche
52.   FREIDBERG (THALBERG) Dore [F] 1883 17 10

Zabeln

Spouse – Samuel
53.   FREIDBERG (SCHNEIDER) Rochel [F] 1909 25 10

Zabeln

Mother – Rosa, spouse – Leiser; shop owner
54.   FREIDBERG (THALBERG) Dora [F] 1888 08 02

Zabeln

Spouse – David
55.   FREIDBERG Benita [F] 1928 16 01

Sabile

Father – David, mother – Dora
56.   FREIDBERG David [М] 1884 08 03

Zabeln

Mother – Taube, spouse – Dora
57.   FREIDBERG Isak [М] 1925 27 11

Sabile

Father – David, mother – Dora, unmarried
58.   FREIDBERG Leiser [М] 1908 12 03

Zabeln

Father – Samuel, mother – Dora, spouse – Rochel SCHNEIDER
59.   FREIDBERG Mirjama [F] 1937 14 07

Riga

Father – Leiser, mother – Rochel
60.   FRIEDLENDER Hielel [М] 1890

Zabeln

Unmarried
61.   GANGIN (KATTAN) Rosa [F] 1889 17 09

Zabeln

Spouse – Leiba
62.   GANGIN Leiba [М] 1883 15 07

Varaklani

Father – Schewel, spouse – Rosa; shopkeeper
63.   GLASER (WEITZMANN) Eide [F] 1906 10 12

Zabeln

Father – Haim, spouse – Itzchok Michel
64.   GLASER Samuel [М] 1858 10 02

Zabeln

Widower; shopkeeper
65.   GLASER Scheine lIbe [F] 1939 24 04

Sabile

Father – Itzchok Michel, mother – Eide
66.   GLASER Schmerl [М] 1893 15 09

Zabeln

Father – Samuel, unmarried
67.   GLASER Schneier Auser [М] 1883 13 12

Zabeln

Father – Meier, unmarried
68.   GLASER Schore Hane [F] 1938 20 01

Sabile

Father – Itzchok Michel, mother – Eide
69.   GLASER Taube [F] 1893 15 05

Zabeln

Father – Samuel, unmarried
70.   GRASITOWITSCH Leiba [М] 1904 10 02

Walgahlen, Talsen district

Married; tailor
71.   GRINBLATT (KABILLER) Hanna [F] 1891 09 04

Zabeln

Spouse – Leo
72.   GRINBLATT David [М] 1932 03 02

Riga

Father – Leo, mother – Hanna
73.   GRINBLATT Hirsch [М] 1935 21 04

Sabile

Father – Leo, mother – Hanna
74.   GRINBLATT Leo [М] 1888 03 08

Schaulen, Lithuania

Spouse – Hanna; shopkeeper, Swedish citizen
75.   HEIMANN (JUDELOWITSCH) Jette [F] 1901 02 12

Zabeln

Spouse – Elia
76.   HEIMANN Elia [М] 1883 09 01

Zabeln

Spouse – Jette; shoemaker
77.   HEIMANN Lea [F] 1926 16 10

Sabile

Father – Elia, mother – Jette
78.   HEIMANN Roche / Rochel [F] 1925 26 10

Sabile

Father – Elia, mother – Jette, unmarried
79.   HEIMANN Schaje [М] 1929 17 04

Sabile

Father – Elia, mother – Jette
80.   HEIMANN Wolf [М] 1937 12 03

Sabile

Father – Elia, mother – Jette
81.   HIRSCHSOHN (SCHNEIDER) Sissia [F] 1902 14 05

Zabeln

Spouse – Hirsch Faiwusch, widow
82.   HIRSCHSOHN Hanne [F] 1928 20 11

Sabile

Father – Hirsch
83.   HIRSCHSOHN Hone [М] 1927 02 01

Sabile

Father – Hirsch Faiwusch, mother – Sissia
84.   HIRSCHSOHN Siman / Simon [М] 1924 26 04

Sabile

Father – Hirsch Faiwusch, mother – Sissia
85.   HOFFMANN (GOLDBERG) Jetta Gitel [F] 1891 15 01

Zabeln

Father – Salman, spouse – David; housewife
86.   HOFFMANN David [М] 1891 06 05

Sassmacken

Father – Oser, spouse – Jetta Gitel; shopkeeper
87.   HOFFMANN Ella [F] 1924 23 03

Sabile

Father – David, mother – Jetta Gitel, unmarried
88.   HOFFMANN Salaman Jossel [М] 1925 16 07

Sabile

Father – David, mother – Jetta Gitel
89.   HOFFMANN Tea [F] 1928 22 04

Sabile

Father – David, mother – Jetta Gitel
90.   HOSIASOHN (GOLDMANN) Riva [F] 1878 20 09

Zabeln

Spouse – Markus
91.   HOSIASOHN Golde [F] 1926 06 04

Sabile

Father – Samuel, mother – Minna
92.   HOSIASOHN July [М] 1921 04 08

Sabile

Father – Samuel, mother – Minna, unmarried
93.   HOSIASOHN Markus [М] 1877 09 03

Zabeln

Spouse – Riva; salesman
94.   HOSIASOHN Samuel [М] 1879 25 10

Zabeln

Spouse – Minna; salesman
95.   HUNNE (MOSELIUS) Simcha [F] 1857 06 08

Kandau

Widow
96.   ISAKOWITSCH Siman [М] 1881 10 04

Illuxt

Married; shopkeeper
97.   JACOBY (SCHAMES) Schore [F] 1883 13 05

Tuckum

Spouse – Wolf; seamstress
98.   JACOBY (SCHLOSSBERG) Frida [F] 1899 19 02

Usma, Windau district

Spouse – Jacob
99.   JACOBY Esther [F] 1931 14 09

Sabile

Father – Jacob, mother – Frida
100.                 JACOBY Haim [М] 1938 14 10

Sabile

Father – Jacob, mother – Frida
101.                 JACOBY Israel [М] 1930 03 04

Sabile

Father – Jacob, mother – Frida
102.                 JACOBY Jacob [М] 1891 03 08

Zabeln

Spouse – Frida; cabman
103.                 JACOBY Siman [М] 1926 20 05

Sabile

Father– Jacob, mother – Frida
104.                 JACOBY Wolf [М] 1889 20 07

Zabeln

Spouse – Schore; shoemaker
105.                 JANKELOWITSCH (FRIEDLENDER) Basse [F] 1878 19 09

Zabeln

Spouse – Benze
106.                 JANKELOWITSCH Benze [М] 1878 19 10

Zabeln

Spouse – Basse; upper-maker
107.                 JANKELOWITSCH Schaje [М] 1913 08 04

Zabeln

Father – Benze, mother – Basse, unmarried
108.                 JUDELOWITSCH (KABILLER) Hanna [F] 1891 29 11

Zabeln

Spouse – Hessel
109.                 JUDELOWITSCH Kolia Tuwje [М] 1926 15 02

Sabile

Father – Hessel, mother – Hanna
110.                 JUDELOWITSCH Leiser Itze [М] 1920 22 10

Sabile

Father – Hessel, mother – Hanna, unmarried
111.                 KABILLER (ADLER) Mere [F] 1863 10 10

Zabeln

Spouse – Schaja, widow
112.                 KABILLER (BEHRMANN) Have [F] 1880 17 06

Russia

Spouse – Israel, widow
113.                 KABILLER (KAGAN) Lea Feiga [F] 1917 04 02

Riga

Spouse – Kalman
114.                 KABILLER (KAHN) Ida [F] 1878 07 07

Sassmacken

Spouse – Benze
115.                 KABILLER Benze [М] 1876 20 06

Zabeln

Spouse – Ida; shopkeeper
116.                 KABILLER Hone [М] 1923 23 11

Sabile

Adopted father – Israel, mother – Have
117.                 KABILLER Kalman [М] 1909 28 03

Zabeln

Father – Jankel, spouse – Lea Feiga; shopkeeper
118.                 KABILLER Keile [F] 1907 02 07

Zabeln

Father – Jankel, divorced
119.                 KABILLER Noemia [F] 1939 22 12

Riga

Father – Kalman, mother – Lea Feiga
120.                 KAGANOWITSCH (WEINREICH) Blume Rebecka [F] 1899 17 02

Tuckum

Father – Moses, mother – Mina, spouse – Jacob / Jankel Schie
121.                 KAGANOWITSCH Auser [М] 1929 19 12

Sabile

Father – Jacob / Jankel Schie, mother – Blume Rebecka
122.                 KAGANOWITSCH Benze [М] 1928 10 04

Sabile

Father – Jacob / Jankel Schie, mother – Blume Rebecka
123.                 KAGANOWITSCH Jacob / Jankel Schie [М] 1877 06 05

Zabeln

Father – Moses, spouse – Blume Rebecka; shoemaker
124.                 KAGANOWITSCH Jalle [F] 1923 24 08

Sabile

Father – Jacob / Jankel Schie, mother – Blume Rebecka, unmarried
125.                 KAGANOWITSCH Masche [F] 1925 17 12

Sabile

Father – Jacob / Jankel Schie, mother – Blume Rebecka
126.                 KAGANOWITSCH Scheina [F] 1933

Sabile

Father – Jacob
127.                 KAGANOWITSCH Siman [М] 1921 31 10

Sabile

Father – Jacob, unmarried
128.                 KAHN Hirsch [М] 1866 01 03 Zabeln Father – Israel, mother – Reise, spouse – Base, widower
129.                 KATTAN (TOBIAS) Meria [F] 1898 01 07

Zabeln

Mother – Schifra, spouse – Schaja Leiba
130.                 KATTAN Esther Rochel [F] 1935 17 02

Sabile

Father – Schaja Leiba, mother – Meria
131.                 KATTAN Schaja Leiba [М] 1894 17 09

Zabeln

Father – Meier, spouse – Meria
132.                 KATTAN Schlolem [М] 1931 02 11

Sabile

Father – Schaja Leiba, mother – Meria
133.                 KIMMEL Nochum Elia [М] 1882 02 12

Zabeln

Father – Abel, mother – Rosa, spouse – Rive; roofer
134.                 KIMMEL Rive [F] 1880 24 06

Zabeln

Spouse – Nochum Elia
135.                 KLEMPTNER Lewin [М] 1849

Tuckum

Widower
136.                 KREMER (JACOBSOHN) Gene Hatze [F] 1898 03 04

Talsen

Spouse – Hosias Salaman, widow
137.                 KREMER Leibe [М] 1934 16 12

Sabile

Father – Herz, mother – Zwie
138.                 KREMER Menucha [F] 1923 28 03

Sabile

Father – Hosias Salaman, mother – Gene, unmarried
139.                 KREMER Mosus [М] 1931 08 11

Sabile

Father – Herz, mother – Zwie
140.                 LEWENTHAL (STERN) Roche [F] 1852 06 12

Goldingen

Spouse – Wulf, widow
141.                 MALER (KABILLER) Frume [F] 1895 27 06

Zabeln

Spouse – Jacob
142.                 MALER (KAHN) Sara [F] 1900 26 07

Zabeln

Father – Hirsch, mother – Base, spouse – Abram
143.                 MALER Abram [М] 1893 19 06

Zabeln

Spouse – Sara; butcher
144.                 MALER Jacob [М] 1891 04 04

Zabeln

Spouse – Frume; salesman
145.                 MALER Oscher [М] 1935 06 06

Riga

Father – Jacob, mother – Frume
146.                 MALER Riva [F] 1930 15 09

Renda, Kuldiga district

Father – Abram, mother – Sara
147.                 MALER Samson [М] 1928 30 07

Sabile

Father – Abram, mother – Sara
148.                 MALER Samson [М] 1930 13 08

Sabile

Father – Jacob
149.                 MALER Schore Hanne [F] 1928 10 02

Sabile

Father – Jacob
150.                 MARGOLIN (WULFAHRT) Jette / Ette Roche [F] 1899 01 09

Zabeln

Spouse – Abram
151.                 MARGOLIN Abram [М] 1894 20 06

Skulte

Spouse – Jette / Ette Roche; trader
152.                 MARGOLIN David Leivi [М] 1923 20 07

Sabile

Father – Abram, mother – Jette / Ette Roche
153.                 MARGOLIN Lea [F] 1931 16 03

Sabile

Father – Abram, mother – Jette / Ette Roche
154.                 MARGOLIN Leiser [М] 1927 04 05

Sabile

Father – Abram, mother – Jette / Ette Roche
155.                 MATISOHN Benjamin [М] 1915 12 06

Friedrichstadt

Mother – Mere, unmarried
156.                 MATISOHN Golda [F] 1912 21 05

Friedrichstadt

Mother – Mere, unmarried; saleswoman, citizen of Great Britain
157.                 MATISOHN Neiach Nochim / Nochum [М] 1919 16 01

Friedrichstadt

Mother – Mere, unmarried
158.                 MEIEROWITSCH (KAHN) Freide [F] 1865 05 04

Zabeln

Widow; housewife
159.                 MENDELSOHN (WEINBERG) Gite [F] 1887 15 09

Zabeln

Widow; saleswoman
160.                 MENDELSOHN Leiser [М] 1915 14 01

Zabeln

Mother – Gite, unmarried; salesman
161.                 MOSCHKOWITSCH David [М] 1921 30 11

Sabile

Unmarried
162.                 MOSCHKOWITSCH Gita [F] 1923 13 12

Sabile

163.                 MOSCHKOWITSCH Hanne [F] 1920 24 10

Sabile

164.                 NOWIK Bassja [F] 1889

Viski

Widow
165.                 PERLMANN (GOTTLIEB) Basse [F] 1870 22 02

Zabeln

Spouse – Esriel
166.                 PERLMANN (JACOBY) Mere [F] 1879 07 06

Zabeln

Spouse – Mosus, widow; shop owner
167.                 PERLMANN (NOWIK) Zerna [F] 1916 25 12

Viski

Mother – Basja, spouse – Israel; saleswoman
168.                 PERLMANN Aron Kalman [М] 1910 25 12

Zabeln

Father – Esriel, mother – Basse, spouse – Taube Rale GLASER; shopkeeper
169.                 PERLMANN Esriel [М] 1877 14 11

Zabeln

Spouse – Basse; salesman
170.                 PERLMANN Israel [М] 1908 06 08

Zabeln

Father – Mosus, mother – Mere, spouse – Zerna NOWIK; salesman
171.                 SCHINDELMANN (WULFAHRT) Sara [F] 1902 23 03

Zabeln

Spouse – Boruch
172.                 SCHINDELMANN Boruch [М] 1895 15 05

Zabeln

Father – David, mother – Mere, spouse – Sara; shopkeeper
173.                 SCHINDELMANN Dina [F] 1929 31 01

Sabile

Father – Boruch, mother – Sara
174.                 SCHINDELMANN Dweire [F] 1935 22 11

Sabile

Father – Boruch, mother – Sara
175.                 SCHINDELMANN Rosa [F] 1926 08 06

Sabile

Father – Boruch
176.                 SCHNEIDER (BLUMENAU) Rosa [F] 1875 05 06

Zabeln

Widow
177.                 SCHNEIDER Benjamin [М] 1930 31 03

Ventspils

Father – Schleime
178.                 SCHNEIDER Peise [М] 1908 26 05

Zabeln

Mother – Rosa, spouse – Hane Base HERZBERG; hairdresser
179.                 SCHNEIDER Rive [F] 1902 14 06

Talsen

Spouse – Schleime

 

In this list (table 1) are 179 persons. Hence we may conclude that this number of Jews of Sabile, who were killed in Sabile in 1941, do not match with the number that is given on the memorial stone. It is necessary to make a broader and deeper exploration for identifing all victims of the Holocaust in Sabile. It is possible to make a list of Jews, who probably were the potential victims, because they stayed in Sabile in 1941.

The table 2 that is given below is a list of Jews, who stayed in Sabile in 1941, but there is no information about their fate.

 

Table 2

Jews, who during the war were in Sabile, but there is no information about their fate in 1941-1945

  Family name (maiden name), given name, gender [F-female, M-male] Date of birth (year, day, month), place of birth  Remark (members of the family, family status; occupation, comments)
1.       BRIN Eti [F] 1899 29 07

Windau

Unmarried; doctor
2.       TOBIAS (DREIER) Schifra [F] 1858 25 08

Zabeln

Widow
3.       FREIDBERG Basse [F] 1886 26 06

Zabeln

Mother – Taube, unmarried; housewife
4.       FRIEDMANN Hirsch [М] 1858 13 04

Kandau

Widow
5.       GLASER Itzchok Michel [М] 1910 11 02

Zabeln

Father – Israel Leib, mother – Taube, spouse – Eide; coachman
6.       GLASER Rebecka [F] 1903 03 02 Kandau Unmarried; teacher
7.       GOLDBERG (KAHN) Rachel [F] 1861 15 07 Zabeln Widow

 

8.       JUDELOWITSCH Hessel [М] 1892 19 03 Zabeln Spouse – Hanna
9.       MILLER (KABILLER) Rochel [F] 1910 17 07 Zabeln Father – Jankel, married; saleswoman
10.   THALBERG (KABILLER) Haja [F] 1883 27 03 Zabeln Spouse – Aron
11.   WEINREICH (KABILLER) Mascha [F] 1908 03 04 Zabeln Spouse – Hone
12.   WEITZMANN (KABILLER) Haje [F] 1891 11 10 Zabeln Spouse – Motel
13.   WULFAHRT (KABILLER) Dore [F] 1856

Zabeln

Widow
14.   KATZ Rosalia [F] 1917

Russia

Father – Mosus, mother – Pere, unmarried
15.   KREMER (PERLMANN) Zwie [F] 1905 15 09 Zabeln Father – Mosus, spouse – Herz KREMER, widow
16.   MILLER Maria [F] 1937 21 08 Riga Mother – Rochel
17.   MOSCHKOWITSCH Itzchok [М] 1918 01 02

Ostrogorsk, Russia

Unmarried
18.   SLAWJAZISKY (PERLMANN) Sare [F] 1914 12 12 Zabeln Father – Mosus, mother – Mere, spouse – Elias Behr
19.   SCHNEIDER Schleime [М] 1903 25 04 Zabeln Married; watch-maker
20.   SCHUHMACHER Lea [F] 1894 27 09 Zabeln Father – Abram, unmarried
21.   SCHUHMACHER Meier [М] 1902 04 04 Zabeln Father – Abram, unmarried; trader
22.   SLOTNIKOV (SCHENDELMANN) Haja [F] 1890 10 03 Zabeln Mother – Mere, spouse – Folja; saleswoman
23.   SLAWJAZISKY Benzion [М] 1938 07 11 Riga Father – Samuel, mother – Mere
24.   SLAWJAZISKY (ISAKOWITSCH) Mere [F] 1908 18 02 Zabeln Father – Siman, spouse – Samuel; saleswoman
25.   SLOTNIKOV Dora [F] 1932 16 03 Sabile Father – Folja, mother – Haja
26.   SLOTNIKOV Folja [М] 1891 06 09 Russia Spouse – Haja; shopkeeper 
27.   SLOTNIKOV Jache [F] 1921 20 02 Sabile Father – Folja, mother – Haja, unmarried
28.   SLOTNIKOV Josse [М] 1925 18 03 Sabile Father – Folja, mother – Haja
29.   THALBERG Aron [М] 1882 25 11 Zabeln Spouse – Haja; roofer
30.   TOBIAS Nisson [М] 1902 16 02 Zabeln Mother – Schifra, unmarried; teacher
31.   TOBIAS (DREIER) Schifra [F] 1858 25 08 Zabeln Widow
32.   WEINBERG (HOSIASOHN) Gite [F] 1879 19 04 Zabeln Spouse – Abram, widow; householder
33.   WEINREICH Abram Schmera [М] 1938 22 05 Sabile Father – Hone, mother – Mascha
34.   WEINREICH Hone [М] 1905 28 07 Tuckum Father – Moses, spouse – Mascha; upper-maker
35.   WEINREICH Man Schneier [М] 1935 20 04 Sabile Father – Hone, mother – Mascha
36.   WEINREICH Michail [М] 1933 16 04 Sabile Father – Hone, mother – Mascha
37.   WEITZMANN Abram [М] 1911 29 04 Zabeln Father – Haim, unmarried; butcher
38.   WEITZMANN Aron [М] 1930 02 01 Sabile Father – Motel, mother – Haje
39.   WEITZMANN Behr / Berl [М] 1920 13 03 Sabile Father – Motel, mother – Haje, unmarried
40.   WEITZMANN Beile Schewe [F] 1926 05 02 Sabile Father – Motel, mother – Haje
41.   WEITZMANN Gitel [F] 1924 20 09 Sabile Father – Motel, mother – Haje, unmarried
42.   WEITZMANN Gute Jette [F] 1922 30 03 Sabile Father – Motel, mother – Haje, unmarried
43.   WEITZMANN Gutel [М] 1893 20 11 Zabeln Father – Haim, unmarried; butcher
44.   WEITZMANN Haim [М] 1868 10 07 Kovno province (Lithuania) Widower; shopkeeper
45.   WEITZMANN Ida [F] 1904 15 10 Zabeln Father – Haim, spouse – Itzchok Michel(?), unmarried
46.   WEITZMANN Motel [М] 1889 01 10 Zabeln Spouse – Haja; butcher
47.   WEITZMANN Ruven [М] 1906 01 10 Zabeln Father – Haim, unmarried; butcher
48.   WEITZMANN Schore [F] 1928 05 08 Sabile Father – Motel, mother – Haje
49.   WULFAHRT Abram [М] 1905 03 05 Zabeln Father – Wulf Leib, mother – Hane Libe, spouse – Haja Dwore;  cattle-trader

 

This list (table 2) consists of 49 persons. It is quite difficult to reason about fates of these persons, but maybe among them are Jews, who were killed in Sabile in 1941 – during the Holocaust.

Many Jews of Sabile or Jews, who were connected with Sabile, suffered during the Holocaust or were exposed to other forms of repressions (Jews had to worked at the peat factory, they were imprisoned, many of Jews were in the ghetto). Jews of this group and others Jews of Sabile or Jews, who were connected with Sabile, were aggregated in the third table – „The others Jews of Sabile or Jews, who were connected with Sabile”. The total number of such persons is 66.

 

Table 3

The others Jews of Sabile or Jews who were connected with Sabile

  Family name (maiden name), given name, gender [F-female, M-male] Date of birth (year, day, month), place of birth Prewar residence; war residence; (date and place of death) Remark (members of the family, family status; occupation, comments, fate in 1941-1945)
 1.                    BLUMENAU Abe [М] 1908 25 10

Zabeln

Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Wulf, mother – Necha, spouse – Feige; shopkeeper, ghetto, worked at the peat factory in Smarde and was still alive in 1942.07.07.
 2.                    BLUMENAU Beile [F] 1915 07 09

Zabeln

Sabile, Riga; Sabile Father – Samuel, mother – Feiga, unmarried; seamstress, fled (?)
 3.                    BLUMENAU Efroim Michel / Froim [М] 1921 06 02

(no information)

Sabile; Sabile Father – Schaja, mother – Basse, unmarried; killed (?)
 4.                    BLUMENAU (TAUBE) Feiga [F] 1886

Goldingen

Sabile; USSR Spouse – Samuel; fled, survived
 5.                    BLUMENAU (LEIBOWITSCH) Feige [F] 1909

Pickeln, Lithuania

Sabile, Riga; Riga Spouse – Abe; ghetto
 6.                    BLUMENAU Hessel / Essel [М] 1917 02 06

Balvi

Sabile; USSR Father – Samuel, mother – Feiga, unmarried; fled, survived
 7.                    BLUMENAU Iser [М] 1940 27 04

Riga

Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Abe, mother – Feige; ghetto
 8.                    BLUMENAU Samuel [М] 1882 09 01

Zabeln

Sabile; USSR Spouse – Feiga; fled
 9.                    LICHTENSTEIN (BLUMENAU) Fruma Keila [F] 1910 26 07 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Mother – Gite, spouse – David Leiba; housewife, ghetto 
10.                    BROCH Abram [М] 1895

Lithuania

Sabile; Sabile Married; teacher, Lithuanian citizen, no information about fate in 1941-1945
11.                    DAVIDOWITSCH Sergey [М] 1906 21 11 Zabeln Sabile, Talsi; Talsi (?) Father – Moritz Mowscha, mother – Amalia, unmarried; lawyer, no information about fate in 1941-1945
12.                    ERLICH (FELDMANN) Sara [F] 1894 11 02 Goldingen Sabile, Kuldiga; Kuldiga Spouse – Susse; no information about fate in 1941-1945
13.                    FEITELBERG Freida Menuche [F] 1914 08 07 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Hirsch Abram, mother – Sara, unmarried; ghetto 
14.                    FREIDBERG Hirsch [М] 1921 20 07 Sabile Sabile, Riga Father – David, mother – Dora, unmarried; fled (?)
15.                    FREIDBERG Samuel Joseph [М] 1923 04 10 Sabile Sabile; Riga Father – David, mother – Dora; worked at the peat factory in Ploce and was still alive in 1943.02.09.
16.                    GLASER Mere [F] 1916 10 07 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Israel Leib, mother – Taube, unmarried; saleswoman, ghetto (?)
17.                    GLASER Siman / Schiman [М] 1914 03 05 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Israel Leib, mother – Taube, spouse – Scheina; trader, ghetto 
18.                    GLASER (JACOBY) Taube [F] 1882 28 08 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Spouse – Israel Leib, widow; ghetto 
19.                    HENTOV (GLASER) Scheine Roche [F] 1906 05 09 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Israel Leib, mother – Taube, spouse – Salaman; housewife, ghetto (?)
20.                    GOLDBERG Mosus [М] 1911 20 09 Talsen Sabile, Talsi; Talsi Father – Schaja, mother – Liba, unmarried; roofer, died
21.                    HOSIASOHN Hone [М] 1918

Russia

Sabile, Riga; Riga; (Riga 1941) Father – Markus, mother – Riva, unmarried; trader, killed
22.                    HOSIASOHN Jache Zira [F] 1910 14 07 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga; (Riga 1941) Father – Markus, mother – Riva, unmarried; nurse, killed
23.                    HOSIASOHN (ISRAELSOHN) Minna [F] 1896 11 08 Talsen Sabile, Talsi; (no information) Spouse – Samuel; fled (?)
24.                    HOSIASOHN Oser Meische [М] 1912 06 05 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Markus, mother – Riva, unmarried; electrician, ghetto 
25.                    HOSIASOHN Peise [М] 1916

Russia

Sabile, Talsi; Talsi, Riga(?); (Riga(?) 1941) Father – Markus, mother – Rive, spouse – Raicha Mera; watch-maker, killed
26.                    KAHAN (HOSIASOHN) Esther [F] 1907 15 05 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; (no information); (Riga 1941) Father – Markus, mother – Riva, spouse – Zemach; masseure, ghetto, killed
27.                    JANKELOWITSCH Hana [F] 1905 22 03 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga; (Riga 1941)  Father – Benze, mother – Basse, unmarried; worker, ghetto, killed
28.                    JANKELOWITSCH Hirsch [М] 1903 16 05 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; (no information) Father – Benze, mother – Basse, unmarried; upper-maker, fled, survived
29.                    JANKELOWITSCH Salman Peisach [М] 1909 05 07 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Benze, mother – Basse, married; tailor, ghetto, worked at the peat factory in Smarde and was still alive in 1942.07.07.
30.                    JANKELOWITSCH Selda [F] 1907 24 06 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga; (Riga 1941) Father – Benze, mother – Basse, unmarried; worker, ghetto, killed
31.                    JUDELOWITSCH Sara [F] 1918 12 02 Ribinsk, Russia Sabile, Ventspils; Ventspils Father – Hessel, mother – Hanna, unmarried; no information about fate in 1941-1945
32.                    KABILLER Benze Jossel [М] 1897 20 11 Zabeln Sabile, Talsi; Talsi; (Sabile or Talsi 1941) Father – Schaja, spouse – Ginde Lea (not KABILLER); shopkeeper, killed
33.                    KABILLER Jankel [М] 1863 14 04 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga, Sabile, Grobina Married; shopkeeper, no information about fate in 1941-1945
34.                    KAGAN Abram Leiba [М] 1931 01 11 Sabile Sabile, Daugavpils; Daugavpils; (Daugavpils 1941) Father – Benjamin, mother – Schifra; killed
35.                    KAGAN Benjamin [М] 1894 01 04 (Zdziencholi), Grodno district Sabile, Daugavpils; Daugavpils; (Daugavpils 1941) Father – Honon, mother – Jocheweda (not ELIASBERG), spouse – Schifra; rabbi, killed
36.                    KAGAN Hadasa [F] 1934 06 01 Sabile Sabile, Daugavpils; Daugavpils; (Daugavpils 1941) Father – Benjamin, mother – Schifra; killed
37.                    KAGAN Rochel [F] 1935 02 09 Sabile Sabile, Daugavpils; Daugavpils; (Daugavpils 1941) Father – Benjamin, mother – Schifra; killed
38.                    KAGAN (KILOV) Schifra [F] 1906 02 04 Preili Sabile, Daugavpils; Daugavpils; (Daugavpils 1941) Father – Abram, mother – Dina Golda (not ARSCH), spouse – Benjamin; killed
39.                    KAGANOWITSCH Nechame Hode [F] 1919 20 07 Ukraine Sabile, Tukums; Tukums Father – Jacob / Jankel Schie, mother – Blume Rebecka, unmarried; no information about fate in 1941-1945
40.                    KAHN Haim Meier [М] 1913 04 03 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga; (Riga 1941) Father – Hirsch, mother – Base, spouse – Sophia SALMANSOHN; electrician, prison, killed
41.                    KAHN Haja Mere [F] 1905 23 08 Zabeln Dzukste, Sabile, Riga; Riga; (Riga 1941) Father – Hirsch, mother – Base, unmarried; prison, killed
42.                    LUTRIN (KATAN) Hanze [F] 1901 02 04 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; USSR Spouse – Elias; fled
43.                    LEWENTHAL (KRAMER) Mere Lea [F] 1886 28 08 Zabeln Sabile; Sabile Father – Itze, mother – Haja Freide, spouse – Moische; survived
44.                    KREMER Abram [М] 1921 13 12 Sabile Sabile, Riga; (Riga 1941) Father – Hosias Salaman, mother – Gene, unmarried; ghetto 
45.                    KREMER Gutel [М] 1889 01 05 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Itzig, married; butcher, no information about fate in 1941-1945
46.                    LEWENTHAL Basse Keile [F] 1918 24 08 Russia Sabile; (no information); (Latvia 1941) Father – Moische, mother – Mere, unmarried; died during first days of flight
47.                    LEWENTHAL Gita Slata [F] 1923 18 05 Sabile Sabile; Sabile Father – Moische, mother – Mere, unmarried; survived
48.                    LEWENTHAL Haje Freide [F] 1915 12 01 Zabeln Sabile; Sabile Father – Moische, mother – Mere, unmarried; survived
49.                    LEWENTHAL Ita [F] 1921 21 03 Sabile Sabile; Sabile Father – Moische, mother – Mere, unmarried; survived
50.                    MAGARSCHAK David [М] 1908 20 11 Libau Sabile, Riga; Riga Spouse – Fruma; trader, no information about fate in 1941-1945
51.                    MEIEROWITSCH Michle [F] 1919

Zabeln

Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Moses Sussel / Moische, mother – Zipa, unmarried; no information about fate in 1941-1945
52.                    MEIEROWITSCH Pere [F] 1917

Zabeln

Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Moses Sussel / Moische, mother – Zipa, unmarried; no information about fate in 1941-1945
53.                    MEIEROWITSCH Rasche [F] 1911 27 06 Zabeln Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Moses Sussel / Moische, mother – Zipa, unmarried; seamstress, no information about fate in 1941-1945
54.                    MEIEROWITSCH Selma [F] 1920

Sabile

Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Moses Sussel / Moische, mother – Zipa, unmarried; no information about fate in 1941-1945
55.                    MEIEROWITSCH (SUTNER) Zipa [F] 1881

Zabeln

Sabile, Riga; Riga Father – Leiba, spouse – Moses Sussel / Moische, widow; no information about fate in 1941-1945
56.                    MENDELSOHN Ganna [F] 1916 13 02 Riga Sabile; Sabile Mother – Gite, unmarried; hidden
57.                    SCHINDELMANN Abe Leiser [М] 1924 13 02 Sabile Sabile, Riga; USSR Father – Boruch, mother – Sara, unmarried; fled, survived
58.                    SLAWJAZISKY Samuel [М] 1905 17 07 Tuckum Sabile, Riga; Riga; (Riga 1941) Father – Itzik, mother – Blume, spouse – Mere ISAKOWITSCH; kosher butcher, shokhet, ghetto, killed
59.                    THALBERG Scheina / Jenny [F] 1869 11 05 Vane, Tuckum district Sabile; Sabile; (Sabile 1941.19.07.) Father – David, unmarried; seamstress, died(?), killed(?)
60.                    WULFAHRT Dina Dwere [F] 1925 20 01 Sabile Sabile; Sabile Father – Israel, mother – Eva / Ieva, unmarried; baptized, married name MINCANE, survived
61.                    WULFAHRT (BUMBIER) Eva / Ieva [F] 1896 20 12 Kandau Sabile; Sabile Spouse – Israel; baptized to previous christian faith, survived
62.                    WULFAHRT Israel [М] 1896 04 06 Zabeln Sabile; Sabile Spouse – Eva / Ieva; butcher, left hidding place, missing, killed(?)
63.                    WULFAHRT Leiser [М] 1926 27 06 Sabile; Sabile Father– Israel, mother – Eva / Ieva; baptized to Leon, mobilized, missing, killed(?)
64.                    WULFAHRT Meier [М] 1903 10 01 Zabeln Sabile; Palestīna Divorced; no information about fate in 1941-1945
65.                    WULFAHRT Michle [F] 1923 21 09 Sabile Sabile; Sabile Father– Israel, mother – Eva / Ieva; baptized to Ilga, married name SCHWARZ, survived
66.                    WULFSOHN (GLASER) Rebecka [F] 1903 03 02 Kandau Sabile, Riga; Riga Spouse – Gerson; teacher, no information about fate in 1941-1945

 

There is information about 5 Jews of Sabile, who fought in the Red Army. It in many cases meant fled to USSR and participated in warfare basically in the Latvian Division. These Jews of Sabile are: 2 brothers – BLUMENAU Abram (he was born in Sabile in 1919.10.07.) and BLUMENAU Todres (he was born in Zabeln in 1914.23.01.), their father was Samuel, mother – Feiga, both of them were unmarried; KABILLER (other family name – JUDELOWITSCH) Haim Benzion (he was born in Zabeln in 1911.09.09., killed in Golubovo, near Staraja Russa in 1942.10.08.), his father was Benze, mother – Ida, wife – Debora, he was seller; LEWENTHAL Abram Leiser (he was born in Sabile in 1924.24.10.), his father was Moische, mother – Mere, he was unmarried; MEIEROWITSCH Leibe Aisik (he was born in Zabeln in 1909.12.11.), his father was Moses Sussel / Moische, mother – Zipa, wife – Sara / Sora, he was mechanic.

The total number of Jews of Sabile or Jews, who were connected with Sabile, (persons about whom were aggregated any credible information or facts) is 299. After analysis of all these persons it is possible to say that 28 of them were children younger than 10 years, but 20 of them were people over the age of 70. There were 281 Jews in Sabile in 1935. Adding the datas from first two tables (table 1 and table 2), it is possible to conclude that in Sabile during the war (summer 1941) lived 228 Jews. Hence we may conclude that 53 Jews of Sabile left the city, when the war began. We need additional data and new analysis of sources for complete characterizing all fates of Jews of Sabile during World War II.

When Jews of Sabile were killed, their property in the city remained – their furniture, clothes, jewellery and other household goods. The city dwellers pointed out that in the middle of August (about the 18th of August) the sale of Jewish property took place in Sabile. It continued for more than two months. There was no record keeping, grading or valuation of all these things.

 

Postwar years

After World War II Sabile began to recover. There were opened two large companies – „Latvia’s tinned food” (in Latvian – „Latvijas konservi”) in 1945 and a branch office of the factory „Bagmaker” (in Latvian – „Somdaris”) in 1966. Company „Latvia’s tinned food” produced the vegetable preserves, horseradish and mustard, semiproducts of different soups, but factory „Bagmaker” produced gloves, bags, belts and other fashion goods. A new secondary school was built. In 1958 there was built the television tower of rebroadcasting in Sabile. New reinforced concrete bridge across river Abava also was built.

During the time of USSR a gym-hall was established in the synagogue, later for a long time it was empty. In the beginning of the 90’s the synagogue was bought out from the “Fruit and Vegetable Complex of Sabile”. From 2001 until 2004 the synagogue was reconstructed (architect – Modris Liepa). Reconstruction project was created in consultations with Swedish and Latvian architects. The balcony of the synagogue, which was destroyed during the Soviet time, was restored. Architects regretted that there were no photos of inside view of the synagogue. Nowadays the Centre of Contemporary Art and Culture is located there.

When Jews of Sabile were shot, the old Jewish cemetery was left. After the war livestock was pastured there, in the 70’s many monuments were stolen and remade into other gravestones. Until today only several gravestones have remained. Today it is quite difficult to read any text on many monuments. It should be noted that in Kurzeme the decor of Jewish cemetery quite fast adopted German spirit. However in spite of the “German chic” and the German language use the dates of the gravestones were marked by the Jewish tradition (that is – “from the creation of the world” instead of – “by the birth of Christ”). It is significant that Jewish cemeteries, which was located further away from urban areas, still are quite good preserved. The Jewish cemetery of Sabile also is quite good preserved. In the recent years, a special attention is turned and great efforts are dedicated for housekeeping of the Jewish cemetry in Sabile. Fund “The Valley of river Abava” decided to put in order this cemetry so it could become the component of the cultural heritage of the Anciet valley of river Abava.

There is the emotionally overpowering place in the forest, not far from highroad from Sabile in the direction of Kuldiga, near the „Abava rumba”. The common grave of Jews of Sabile is located there. On the 6th of August 1941 Jews of Sabile were killed there – both children, and adults, who were classmates, neighbours and friends of the city dwellers. There is a monument in the place were Jews of Sabile were shot. It was placed in 1985. There is a caption on this monument: „Here were buried 240 victims of German fascist terror, who were killed on the 6th of August 1941.” This memorial site is located about 150 m from the right bank of the Abava, not far from the place, where river Abava is located the most closely to the road. If it is hard to find this place from the side of the river, then it is possible to find this place about 550 m from the bus stop and 900 m from the bridge of Svente in the direction of Kuldiga. There is a small hill, which is overgrown with firs and pines, in the left roadside about 60 m from the road. Behind this hill is located the memorial place. Even now, there is an extant one hole that was planned as a place of burial for Gispyies (Romas) from Sabile, who were rescued. The head of the city of that time – Martins Berzins (1873-1968) – refused to sign the document about shooting of the Roma community of Sabile. The Gypsy community in acknowledgement of that built him the monument. In the August of 2000 (the 6th of August 2001 – is the 60th anniversary from that day when the Jewish community of Sabile was exterminated) there was received the financial support from the Culture Capital Fund for improvement of the memorial place of Jewish destruction. 

Despite the danger, many people condemned the killing of Jews and they tried to hide Jews, tried to provide them false documents, they baptized Jews in the Christen Church, giving a different name, and adopted Jew’s children. Quite wide there was mentioned Martins Berzins, who defied to the destruction mechanism of people of Nazi Germany by his civic courage. As told Dina Mincane (maiden name – Wulfahrt), as well as Alma Zarina – Martins Berzins warned Jews about expected repressions. The names of Sabile’s peasants – Zanis Alksnis and Malvine Rozentale – also are mentioned in the list of rescuers (in their houses in March of 1942 there were found 2 Jews). Malvine Rozentale saved from shooting her Jewish friend.

However, despite all efforts and attempts to save Jews, in the 60’s there were no Jews in Sabile. Although the city dwellers remember that once there lived 2 Jewish sisters (after World War II), but there is no information about their fates. One young man – Jew about 3-4 years spent his summer vacation in Sabile also.

The number of inhabitants in 2008 in Sabile was 1475. Today there are no Jews living in Sabile.

 

Notable Jews of Sabile or Jews, who were connected with Sabile

 

  • Menachem Izraelson – the first Rabbi of Sabile. He began his service (from 1840 to 1864) in Sabile and within several years moved to Kuldiga. It is possible to find his signature in the book of acts of local Jewish community (in Pinkos) already in 1831.

 

  • Mordechay Samunov – Rabbi, who after training in Sabile (from 1840 to 1864) moved to

 

  • Duber Wolf Lipshitz – Rabbi, who after training in Sabile (from 1840 to 1864) moved to

 

  • Tsvi Rolbe – Rabbi in Sabile from 1864 to 1900. He began his service in Lithuania, but later about 1864 he became the Rabbi of Sabile. He worked as Rabbi of Sabile until his death in 1900. In his service time began to build the synagogue of Sabile.

 

  • Meir (the son of Rabbi Elhonon Berlin) – Rabbi of Sabile from 1901 to 1915. Later he went to „Erec Izrael” (the Land of Israel – Palestine).

 

  • Sholom Tsvi Tobias (the son of Gaon Avraam) – Rabbi of Sabile. In 1897 he opened the Yeshiva in Sabile. He became the Rabbi of Sabile after World War I. He died in 1924.

 

  • Elhonon Hakoen Kan – Rabbi of Sabile from 1924. (According to Ovčinskis, L. Ebreju vēsture Latvijā 1561.-1923. – Rīga, 1928.) *

 

  • Hone Kagan – Rabbi of Sabile. He born in Daugavpils in 1853. He died in Daugavpils in the 6th of February 1930. (According to Latvija: sinagogas un rabīni, 1918-1940. – Rīga, 2004.) **[1]

 

 

  • Benjamin Kagan – Rabbi of Sabile. He was born on the 1st of April 1894 in Poland (Zdziencholi, Grodno district). He studied at the Rabbinical school in Vilna (Vilnius, Lithuania) and Mir Yeshiva, Minsk province (Belarus), ordained by the Rabbi of Mir A. Kamay and the Chief Rabbi of the Yeshiva L. J. Finkel. Rabbi in Sabile from 1931 until 1937. When he was in Sabile, he lived in No. 4, Rigas Street. On the 19th of January 1937 he became the Rabbi in Daugavpils. His father was Honon, mother – Jocheweda (ELIASBERG), wife – Schifra (maiden name – KILOV, she was born on the 2nd of April 1906 in Preili), his son – Abram Leiba (he was born on the 1st of November 1931 in Sabile), his daughter – Hadasa (she was born on the 6th of January 1934 in Sabile), his daughter – Rochel (she was born on the 2nd of September 1935 in Sabile). Rabbi Benjamin Kagan and his family were killed in 1941 in Daugavpils.

 

  • Itzhok Segal – Rabbi of Sabile. He was born on the 10th of June 1912 in Rosenau (Zilupe). He studied in Riga, Panevezhys (Lithuania) and Mir Yeshivas, graduated from the Mir Yeshiva (Belarus) in 1939. Rabbi in Sabile from the 24th of March 1940. He was the last Rabbi of Sabile. He was killed in Sabile in 1941 – during the Holocaust.

 

 

 

  • Slavyatsissky Elias Ber – ritual slaughterer and cantor in Sabile from 1935. He was born on the 27th of December 1909 in Tukums. He graduated from the Tukums Municipal elementary school in 1925, studied at Riga Yeshiva until 1937, appointed by Tukums Rabbi.

 

  • Peigman – teacher in Sabile. In 1919, she opened the first municipal Jewish school with 3 classes in Sabile. On the 23rd of March 1920 teacher E. Peigman petitioned to the Department of Jewish education for opening free school for Jews in Sabile. The list of pupils of Jewish school in Sabile was approved on the 20th of January 1922. The Jewish elementary school in Sabile was established in 1922. That Jewish school in Sabile, teaching in Yiddish and Hebrew, supported by the municipality, functioned in the separate building. E. Peigman was one of the first teachers.

 

  • Nison Tobiass – teacher and administrator of the Jewish elementary school in Sabile. He was born on the 16th of February 1902 in Sabile. His mother was – Schifra. He was unmarried. In 1924, he finished the summer course of study and on the 30th of September started to work in the Jewish elementary school in Sabile. He worked in this school several years. He taught – Yiddish, Jewish history, singing, gymnastics, pencraft, calculating, physics, environmental education, algebra, geometry. In Sabile also functioned a private library that belonged to N. Tobiass. His library was located in No. 14, Ventspils Street. It was opened once a week. There was no reading-room in the library. The books (the total number of books were 210, all these books were in foreign language, 208 of all these books were fiction, but 2 books were scientific) were lent out for free. The total number of readers were 12.

 

  • Davidovich – doctor of Sabile. His name – Moritz Mowscha. He was born on the 4th of September 1871 in Sabile. Widower. His wife was Amalia. His son – Sergey (he was born on the 21st of November 1906 in Sabile, he was lawyer, unmarried). The older generation of the city dwellers still remember him. He was a very good doctor. He treated many of the city dwellers. He was killed in 1941 in Sabile.

 

 

Bibliography and Sources:

 

Literature:

  1. Apceļosim Kurzemi! – Rīga, 1960.
  2. Avotiņš, V. Lejup pa Abavu: kultūrvēsturisks tūrisma ceļvedis pa Abavu un tās baseina upēm. – Rīga, 2004.
  3. Bergmanis, J. Pilsētu nekustamas mantas nodoklis un tā praktiska aprēķināšana. – Rīga, 1930. 
  4. Broce, J. K. Zīmējumi un apraksti. – Rīga, 2007.
  5. Dribins, L. Ebreji Latvijā. – Rīga, 2002.
  6. Dubiņš, E. Kurzemē. – Rīga, 1993.
  7. Edelnieks, K., Vītols, V. Abavas senleja. – Rīga, 1978.
  8. Ezergailis, A. Holokausts vācu okupētajā Latvijā, 1941-1944. – Rīga, 1999.
  9. Juškēvičs, J. Kurzemes hercogi un viņu laikmets. – Rīga, 1935.
  10. Kurzeme un kurzemnieki. – Rīga, 1995.
  11. Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste:1562-1795. – Rīga, 2007.
  12. Latvija: sinagogas un rabīni, 1918-1940. – Rīga, 2004.
  13. Latvijas pilsētas valsts 20 gados. – Rīga, 1938.
  14. Levin, D. Ebreju vēsture Latvijā: no apmešanās sākumiem līdz mūsu dienām. – Rīga, 1999.
  15. Maldups, A. Apriņķu un pagastu apraksti. – Rīga, 1937.
  16. Melers, M. Ebreju kapsētas Latvijā. – Rīga, 2006.
  17. Moreins, G. Ebreju kapakmeņi Latvijā. // Māksla, 1988. Nr.6
  18. Mūsu skola. Talsu apriņķa skolotāju arodbiedrības rakstu krājums. – Talsi, 1928.
  19. Rusmanis, S., Vīks, I. Kurzeme. – Rīga, 1993.
  20. Sabile // Latvijas pilsētas: enciklopēdija. – Rīga, 1999.
  21. Salnais, V. Pilsētu apraksti. – Rīga, 1936.
  22. Skujenieks, M. Latvija: zeme un iedzīvotāji. – Rīga, 1927.
  23. Talsu apriņķis: dzīve un darbs. – Rīga, 1936.
  24. Talsu novads: Enciklopēdisks rakstu krājums. – Rīga, 1935.-1937.
  25. Vanags, K. Atceries Latviju. 4. – Rīga, 1994.

The press:

  • Diena,
  • Sabiles Novada Vēstnesis,
  • Talsu Vēstis.

The materials from „Latvijas Valsts vēstures arhīvs”:

  • LVVA, 1355. f. – Talsu apriņķa nodokļu inspekcija,
  • LVVA, 1370. f. – Baznīcu un konfesiju departaments,
  • LVVA, 1697. f. – Sabiles pilsētas valde,
  • LVVA, 2125. f., 4. apr. – Mazākumtautības izglītības nodaļa,
  • LVVA, 2706. f. – Statistikas dati par 1897.gada tautas skaitīšanu.

The materials from museums:

  • from museum „Ebreji Latvijā” (Ovčinskis, L. Ebreju vēsture Latvijā 1561.-1923. – Rīga, 1928.; Museum of the Jewish Diaspora (Israel) – headword „Sabile” [MEL B-661]),
  • from museum „Sabiles novada muzejs”,
  • from museum „Talsu novada muzejs”.

The groups of materials:

  • from library „Sabiles novada bibliotēka”,
  • from library „Talsu galvenā bibliotēka”.

The unpublished memories of city dwellers of Sabile:

  • interview with Natālija Abolina,
  • interview with Arnoldu Duksts,
  • narrative of Benita Sile.

The source references in the Internet:

Maybe * and ** is information about one person.